Improving implementation of smoking cessation guidelines in pregnancy care: development of an intervention to address system, maternity service leader and clinician factors

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Passey, Megan E.
Adams, Catherine
Paul, Christine
Atkins, Lou
Longman, Jo M.
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Behaviour Change Wheel , Theoretical Domains Framework , Stakeholder Engagement , Smoking in Pregnancy , Smoking Cessation , Antenatal Care , Pregnancy Care
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Background: Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of multiple serious adverse infant, child and maternal outcomes, yet nearly 10% of Australian women still smoke during pregnancy. Despite evidence-based guidelines that recommend routine and repeated smoking cessation support (SCS) for all pregnant women, the provision of recommended SCS remains poor. Guidance on developing complex interventions to improve health care recommends drawing on existing theories, reviewing evidence, undertaking primary data collection, attending to future real-world implementation and designing and refining interventions using iterative cycles with stakeholder input throughout. Here, we describe using the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) and the Theoretical Domains Framework to apply these principles in developing an intervention to improve the provision of SCS in Australian maternity services. Methods: Working closely with key stakeholders in the New South Wales (NSW) health system, we applied the steps of the BCW method then undertook a small feasibility study in one service to further refine the intervention. Stakeholders were engaged in multiple ways—as a core research team member, through a project Advisory Group, targeted meetings with policymakers, a large workshop to review potential components and the feasibility study. Results: Barriers to and enablers of providing SCS were identified in five of six components described in the BCW method (psychological capability, physical opportunity, social opportunity and reflective and automatic motivation). These were mapped to intervention types and we selected education, training, enablement, environmental restructuring, persuasion, incentivisation and modelling as suitable in our context. Through application of the APEASE criteria (Affordability, Practicability, Effectiveness, Acceptability, Side effects and Equity) in the stakeholder workshop, behaviour change techniques were selected and applied in developing the intervention which includes systems, clinician and leadership elements. The feasibility study confirmed the feasibility and acceptability of the midwifery component and the need to further strengthen the leadership component. Conclusions: Using the BCW method combined with strong stakeholder engagement from inception resulted in transparent development of the MOHMQuit intervention, which targets identified barriers to and enablers of the provision of SCS and is developed specifically for the context in which it will be implemented. The intervention is being trialled in eight public maternity services in NSW.
Passey, M. E., Adams, C., Paul, C., Atkins, L., & Longman, J. M. (2021). Improving implementation of smoking cessation guidelines in pregnancy care: development of an intervention to address system, maternity service leader and clinician factors. Implementation science communications, 2(1), 128.
Implementation Science Communications
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