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    Reactive oxygen species and male fertility
    (Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 2020-03-29) O’Flaherty, Cristian
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    Could COVID‐19 have an impact on male fertility?
    (Andrologia, 2020-05-21) Illiano, Ester; Trama, Francesco; Costantini, Elisabetta
    The pandemic caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) has led to several hypotheses of functional alteration of different organs. The direct influence of this virus on the male urogenital organs is still to be evaluated. However some hypotheses can already be made, especially in the andrological field, for the biological similarity of the SARS‐CoV and SARS‐CoV2. As well as SARS‐CoV, SARS CoV‐2 uses the ‘Angiotensin Converting Enzyme‐2’ (ACE2) as a receptor to enter human cells. It was found that ACE2, Angiotensin (1‐7) and its MAS receptors are present, over in the lung, also in the testicles, in particular in Leydig and Sertoli cells. A first hypothesis is that the virus could enter the testicle and lead to alterations in testicular functionality. A second hypothesis is that the binding of the virus to the ACE2 receptor, could cause an excess of ACE2 and give rise to a typical inflammatory response. The inflammatory cells could interfere with the function of Leydig and Sertoli cells. Both hypotheses should be evaluated and confirmed, in order to possibly monitor fertility in patients COVID‐19+.
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    Evaluation of sperm chromatin structure and DNA strand breaks is an important part of clinical male fertility assessment
    (Translational Andrology and Urology, 2017-09-06) Evenson, Donald P.
    As reviewed by Agarwal et al. (1) and recently stated by Vu Bach and Schlegel (2), “numerous studies have attempted to assess the association between elevated sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) and ART outcomes. Unfortunately, variations between SDF assays, protocols, and thresholds and differences in study populations have resulted in systematic reviews and meta-analyses fraught with heterogeneity and unable to come to robust conclusions”. However, these early meta-analyses were considered a near impossible task leading to vague and questionable conclusions. Recent studies have refined protocols for the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA) (3,4) TUNEL (5), SCD (6) and COMET (7) tests. A major consideration for standardizing a protocol is to identify the SDF thresholds. While this has often been described as a single% SDF, e.g., 30% listed as the SCSA threshold in Agarwal et al. (1), more recent SCSA studies have listed two or three thresholds depending on the method of fertilization (see below).
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    Does COVID-19 affect male fertility?
    (World Journal of Urology, 2020-04-21) Abobaker, Anis; Raba, Ali Ahmed
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    Vitamins and antioxidants in the management of male fertility
    (Journal of the Urological Society of India, 2017-07) Kovac, Jason R.