SRHR Evidence (Best practice, Systematic reviews)

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    Prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting among young adult females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional mixed study
    (International Journal of Women's Health, 2016-08-09) Gebremariam, Kidanu; Assefa, Demeke; Weldegebreal, Fitsum
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of female genital cutting (FGC) among young adult (10–24 years of age) females in Jigjiga district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A school-based cross-sectional mixed method combining both quantitative and qualitative research methods was employed among 679 randomly selected young adult female students from Jigjiga district, Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia, from February to March 2014 to assess the prevalence and associated factors with FGC. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The qualitative data were collected using focus group discussion. Results: This study depicted that the prevalence of FGC among the respondents was found to be 82.6%. The dominant form of FGC in this study was type I FGC, 265 (49.3%). The majority of the respondents, 575 (88.3%), had good knowledge toward the bad effects of FGC. Four hundred and seven (62.7%) study participants had positive attitude toward FGC discontinuation. Religion, residence, respondents’ educational level, maternal education, attitude, and belief in religious requirement were the most significant predictors of FGC. The possible reasons for FGC practice were to keep virginity, improve social acceptance, have better marriage prospects, religious approval, and have hygiene. Conclusion: Despite girls’ knowledge and attitude toward the bad effects of FGC, the prevalence of FGC was still high. There should be a concerted effort among women, men, religious leaders, and other concerned bodies in understanding and clarifying the wrong attachment between the practice and religion through behavioral change communication and advocacy at all levels.
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    The risk of female genital cutting in Europe: comparing immigrant attitudes toward uncut girls with attitudes in a practicing country
    (SSM - Population Health, 2017-02-07) Vogt, Sonja; Efferson, Charles; Fehr, Ernst
    Worldwide, an estimated 200 million girls and women have been subjected to female genital cutting. Female genital cutting is defined as an intentional injury to the female genitalia without medical justification. The practice occurs in at least 29 countries in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. In addition, globalization and migration have brought immigrants from countries where cutting is commonly practiced to countries where cutting is not traditionally practiced and may even be illegal. In countries receiving immigrants, governments and development agencies would like to know if girls with parents who immigrated from practicing countries are at risk of being cut. Risk assessments, for example, could help governments identify the need for programs promoting the abandonment of cutting among immigrants. Extrapolating from the prevalence and incidence rates in practicing countries, however, is generally not sufficient to guarantee a valid estimate of risk in immigrant populations. In particular, immigrants might differ from their counterparts in the country of origin in terms of attitudes toward female genital cutting. Attitudes can differ because migrants represent a special sample of people from the country of origin or because immigrants acculturate after arriving in a new country. To examine these possibilities, we used a fully anonymous, computerized task to elicit implicit attitudes toward female genital cutting among Sudanese immigrants living in Switzerland and Sudanese people in Sudan. Results show that Sudanese immigrants in Switzerland were significantly more positive about uncut girls than Sudanese in Sudan, and that selective migration out of Sudan likely contributed substantially to this difference. We conclude by suggesting how our method could potentially be coupled with recent efforts to refine extrapolation methods for estimating cutting risk among immigrant populations. More broadly, our results highlight the need to better understand how heterogeneous attitudes can affect the risk of cutting among immigrant communities and in countries of origin.
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    The impact of migration on attitudes to female genital cutting and experiences of sexual dysfunction among migrant women with FGC
    (Current Sexual Health Reports, 2018-02-23) Johnsdotter, Sara
    Purpose of Review: The purpose of this review was to explore current research on the impact of migration on issues related to female genital cutting and sexuality. Recent Findings: There is growing evidence that migration results in a broad opposition to female genital cutting among concerned migrant groups in western countries. In addition, after migration, affected women live in the midst of a dominant discourse categorizing them as “mutilated” and sexually disfigured. There is also, in contrast to what is shown by most research, a public discourse saying that female genital cutting (FGC) leads to lost capacity to enjoy sex. Concurrently, a vast body of research demonstrates a strong correlation between a negative body image or body shame and sexual dysfunction. Summary: Care for women with FGC needs to be holistic and, while offering medical care when needed, the health care providers should avoid feeding into self-depreciatory body images and notions about lost ability to enjoy sexual life.
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    The lived experience of female genital cutting (FGC) in Somali-Canadian women’s daily lives
    (PloS One, 2018-11-06) Jacobson, Danielle; Glazer, Emily; Mason, Robin; Duplessis, Deanna; Mason, Robin; Duplessis, Deanna; Blom, Kimberly; Mont, Janice Du; Jassal, Navmeet; Einstein, Gillian
    Many of the Somali women who have immigrated to other countries, including Canada, have experienced Female Genital Circumcision/ Mutilation/ Cutting (FGC). While there is literature on the medical aspects of FGC, we were interested in understanding the daily life experiences and bodily sensations of Somali-Canadian women in the context of FGC. Fourteen women living in the Greater Toronto Area were interviewed. Interview data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. We found that the memory of the ceremonial cutting was vivid but was frequently described with acceptance and resignation–as something that just is; that was normal given the particular context, familial and cultural, and their young age. Most of the women recounted experiencing pain and discomfort throughout their adult lives but were intent on not noticing or giving the pain any power; they considered themselves healthy. The following themes emerged from our interviews: Every Body Had It: Discussing FGC, I’m Normal Aren’t I?, and Feeling in My Body–all themes that work at normalizing their bodies in a society that they know views them as different. They dealt with both pain and pleasure in the context of their busy lives suggesting resilience in spite of the day-to-day difficulties of daily life.
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    The effects of migration on the practice and perception female genital cutting (FGC) among the horn of Africa’s immigrants in Melbourne Australia
    (AIMS Public Health, 2019-02-26) Hassanen, Sadia; Woldu, Dawit Okubatsion; Mkuu, Rahma
    This research examines the effects of migration on the practice and perception of Female Genital Mutilation or Cutting (FGM/C) among Horn of Africa immigrants in Melbourne Australia. According to UN 2016 report, on (FGM/C), there are at least 200 million girls and women alive today globally that have undergone some of form of FGM/C. The same report highlights that most of these practices are concentrated in parts of Africa, Middle East and South Asia. Our research employed in-depth semi-structured interviews with 50 men and women informants and five focus groups among the Horn of Africa immigrants living in Melbourne Australia. Interview and focus group data were analysed using MAXQUDA text analysis software to see emerging themes from the data. Upon the examination of the interviews and focus group data, we found that gender and immigration were the two factors that influenced immigrant's perception about FGC. Understanding the social and cultural dynamics on the perception of FGC among immigrant communities in the West could help in devising appropriate interventions to tackle FGC in several groups where this practice is commonly occurring.