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    Knowledge of Thai women in cervical cancer etiology and screening
    (Plos One, 2023-05-18) Khomphaiboonkij, Uraiwan; Sreamsukcharoenchai, Nattapong; Pitakkarnkul, Supakorn; Rittiluechai, Kristsanamon; Tangjitgamol, Siriwan
    Knowledge about cervical cancer screening and Human papilloma virus (HPV) influence on their awareness to the cervical cancer screening program. Most previous studies found inadequate knowledge and attitude among healthy women affect the low rate of screening. This study aimed to assess knowledge of cervical cancer screening and HPV in women who had abnormal cervical cancer screening in Bangkok. Thai women, aged ≥ 18 years old, who had abnormal cervical cancer screening and scheduled to colposcopy clinics of 10 participating hospitals were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. The participants were asked to complete a self-answer questionnaire (Thai language). The questionnaire composed of 3 parts: (I) demographic data, (II) knowledge about cervical cancer screening and (III) knowledge about HPV. Among 499 women who answered the questionnaires, 2 had missing demographic data. The mean age of the participants was 39.28 ± 11.36 years. 70% of them had experience of cervical cancer screening, with 22.7% had previous abnormal cytologic results. Out of 14 questions, the mean score of knowledge about cervical cancer screening was 10.04 ± 2.37. Only 26.9% had good knowledge about cervical cancer screening. Nearly 96% of woman did not know that screening should be done. After excluding 110 women who had never known about HPV, 25.2% had good knowledge about HPV. From multivariable analysis, only younger age (≤ 40 years) was associated with good knowledge of cervical cancer screening and HPV. In the conclusion, only 26.9% of women in this study had good knowledge regarding cervical cancer screening. Likewise, 20.1% of women who had ever heard about HPV has good knowledge about HPV. Providing information about cervical cancer screening and HPV should improve the women's knowledge and better adherence to the screening procedure.
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    Detecting Human Papillomavirus Type 16 in Cervical Cancer Patients with Molecular Variation of Gene L1 in Riau Province Indonesia
    (Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 2022-01) Savira, Maya; S, Donel; Putra, Andani Eka; Yusrawati, Yusrawati; Lipoeto, Nur Indrawati
    Background: Cervical cancer is the second most deadly cancer in the world after breast cancer. The cancer is caused by infection of high risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type 16. It is often found in cervical cancer of which the genome structure is composed of L1 proteins. The L1 protein makes up the viral capsid that has an important role in causing the cervical epithelium. Several studies have found the differences in HPV nucleotides variants that lead to changes in amino acids that disrupt the structure, the natural function of the virus itself, and ultimately lead to changes in biological functions including host immunological recognition. Variation of the L1 gene also affects the effectiveness of existing vaccines. Methods: This research was a descriptive study conducted at the laboratory of microbiology, the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Riau, Pekanbaru from February to August 2018. The study was aimed at looking at the molecular variations of the L1 HPV type 16 gene and examining phylogenic kinship. Results: The SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) which occurred in 26 sample isolates are the substitution of C/G (6240), A/G (6432), T/G (6686), C/T (6824). These variations also cause changes in amino acids, insertion of ATC nucleotide bases (6902), and deletions of GAT bases (6954). Conclusion: There are molecular variations of the L1 HPV type 16 gene which can cause different host immune responses. Phylogenic kinship of HPV type 16 isolate in Riau is similar to Asian-American isolate.
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    Value of diffusion-weighted imaging in preoperative evaluation and prediction of postoperative supplementary therapy for patients with cervical cancer
    (Annals of Translational Medicine, 2022-01) Liu, Liying; Wang, Shuo; Yu, Tao; Bai, Haoyan; Liu, Jingyu; Wang, Danbo; Luo, Yahong
    Background: With the continuous progress of medical imaging technology, evaluation of cervical cancer is increasingly dependent on imaging methods. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) plays an important role, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value is a unique quantitative parameter in the research of cervical cancer. Methods: In this prospective study, a total of 273 patients diagnosed with stage IB1 to IIIC1 cervical cancer based on the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2018 staging guidelines who underwent pelvic 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including MRI and DWI, were enrolled, and the diagnostic value of preoperative staging of cervical cancer was compared between the MRI and DWI groups. The DWI group was used to explore the potential association of mean ADC (ADCmean) with different pathological characteristics and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of ADCmean generated to predict the appropriate postoperative supplementary therapy. Results: The diagnostic coincidence rate of DWI was higher than that of MRI in preoperative staging of cervical cancer (χ2, P<0.05) and determined as stages IB1 + IB2 + IIA1 (90.91%), IB3 + IIA2 (93.48%), and IIIC1p (95.16%). The DWI staging results were consistent with postoperative pathological staging (Kappa value =0.865, P<0.001). We observed significant differences in ADCmean values in relation to pathological type, histological grade, depth of stromal infiltration, tumor diameter, lymphovascular invasion, and pelvic lymph node metastasis of cervical cancer (all P<0.05). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.815, with the best predictive value for postoperative supplementary therapy in cervical cancer (sensitivity 80.0%, specificity 74.0%) at ADCmean of 0.910×10−3 mm2/s. Conclusions: The DWI is a useful tool for preoperative evaluation of cervical cancer. In local cervical lesions, ADCmean varies in relation to different clinicopathological characteristics and a reference index of <0.910×10−3 mm2/s can be effectively applied to predict the need for postoperative supplementary therapy.
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    Establishment of a molecular risk model for the prognosis of cervical cancer based on microRNA expression
    (Annals of Translational Medicine, 2022-01) Li, Jian; Liang, Leilei; Xiu, Lin; Zeng, Jia; Zhu, Yunshu; An, Jusheng; Wu, Lingying
    Background: Globally, the incidence of cervical cancer (CC) is highest among all tumors of the female reproductive system. Numerous studies have shown that the expression level of microRNA (miRNA) is highly correlated with cancer. This study aimed to establish a molecular prognostic model of CC based on miRNAs in order to provide more individualized treatment to CC patients. Methods: Human tissues were selected from the Cancer Hospital (Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College) for miRNA gene sequencing. CC transcriptome expression and clinical data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We distinguished between common differentially expressed miRNAs of CC miRNA-seq and TCGA-CC. To obtain a molecular prognostic model, R package was used to perform univariate Cox proportional hazard regression and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression for common differentially-expressed miRNAs. Next, the model performance was evaluated by survival analysis, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, as well as univariate and multivariate analyses in the TCGA-CC dataset. Quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection was to verify the expression changes of miRNA. Transwell was used to verify the role of molecules in CC cell migration and invasion. Results: Thirty-nine miRNAs were distinguished in TCGA-CC and CC miRNA-seq, LASSO regression analysis to obtain the risk model (risk score =−0.310× expression of hsa-miR-142-3p +0.439× expression of hsa-miR-100-3p). The survival analysis, ROC curve analysis, patient risk assessment, and univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the risk score model had good predictive ability in assessing patient survival (P<0.01), risk of death, and independent prognosis (P<0.01). qPCR detection of clinical samples and cells showed that the expression of hsa-miR-142-3p and hsa-miR-100-3p was consistent with the results of the database analysis. The Transwell results indicated that miR-142-3p is an inhibiting factor and miR-100-3p serves as a promoting factor in CC cell migration and invasion. Conclusions: Twelve miRNA-seq and TCGA-CC tissues were used to build a prognostic model for CC. We have obtained a two-miRNA risk score model. Our results provide a new strategy for the individualized diagnosis and treatment of CC.
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    Perceptions of cervical cancer care among Ethiopian women and their providers: a qualitative study
    (Reproductive Health, 2022-01-04) Burrowes, Sahai; Holcombe, Sarah Jane; Leshargie, Cheru Tesema; Hernandez, Alexandra; Ho, Anthony; Galivan, Molly; Youb, Fatuma; Mahmoud, Eiman
    Background: Cervical cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among Ethiopian women, killing an estimated 4700 women each year. As the government rolls out the country’s first national cancer control strategy, information on patient and provider experiences in receiving and providing cervical cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment is critical. Methods: This qualitative study aimed to assess the availability of cervical cancer care; explore care barriers and sources of delay; and describe women’s and providers’ perceptions and experiences of care. We analyzed data from 45 informants collected at 16 health centers, district hospitals and referral hospitals in East Gojjam Zone and a support center in Addis Ababa. Thirty providers and ten women receiving care were interviewed, and five women in treatment or post-treatment participated in a focus group discussion. Deductive and inductive codes were used to thematically analyze data. Results: Providers lacked equipment and space to screen and treat patients and only 16% had received in-service cervical cancer training. Consequently, few facilities provided screening or preventative treatment. Patients reported low perceptions of risk, high stigma, a lack of knowledge about cervical cancer, and delayed care initiation. All but one patient sought care only when she became symptomatic, and, pre-diagnosis, only half of the patients knew about cervical cancer. Even among those aware of cervical cancer, many assumed they were not at risk because they were not sexually active. Misdiagnosis was another common source of delay experienced by half of the patients. Once diagnosed, women faced multiple-month waits for referrals, and, once in treatment, broken equipment and shortages of hospital beds resulted in additional delays. Barriers to therapeutic treatment included a lack of housing and travel funds. Patient-provider communication of cancer diagnosis was often lacking. Conclusions: In-service provider training should be intensified and should include discussions of cervical cancer symptoms. Better distribution of screening and diagnostic supplies to lower-level facilities and better maintenance of treatment equipment at tertiary facilities are also a priority. Expanded cervical cancer health education should focus on stigma reduction and emphasize a broad, wide-spread risk of cervical cancer.